Overview of Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS)
Goal: Provide systematic and consistent behavioral support (ranging in intensity based on student need) to all students and reinforce desired behaviors. Tier I
Universal = All students access tier I support
Tier I involves universal guidelines for behavior that are taught to all students with a system for reinforcing desired behaviors.
Reinforcement strategies might include the provision of a token or ticket when the student engages in desired behaviors. Tokens/tickets may be used to purchase various rewards. Another example might be access to a fun event for no behavioral referrals or missing assignments.
Selected = Some at-risk students (10-25% of students)
Tier 2 involves more targeted intervention (including instruction and reinforcement) often delivered in a small group format or less intensive, individualized format.
Examples of Tier 2 interventions: small group counseling, behavioral contracts, school-home note system, or Check-In/Check-Out
Students are identified for tier 2 supports through universal screening procedures, record review, or parent/teacher/student referral.
A student who is receiving tier II intervention should also be receiving tier I intervention.
Targeted/Intensive intervention = High-risk students (3-5%)
Students are typically referred for tier III intervention when they do not make progress in response to tier II intervention. Specific processes for transitioning from tier II to tier III are developed at the school level, but usually involve a review of progress monitoring data.
A student who is receiving tier III intervention should also be receiving tier I and II intervention.
The provision of wrap-around services should be considered for students receiving tier III intervention. Wrap-around services might include private counseling, access to after school programs, support from the Family Resource Center, and other community-based resources.
Family involvement is a crucial component of tier III intervention.
Tier III interventions are typically individualized behavior plans developed using Functional Behavior Assessment. Tier III intervention plans may also include more intensive, individual school-based counseling using evidence-based therapy techniques, like Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, depending on the school’s resources. All tier III intervention plans must include some type of instructional component that aims to decrease the problem behavior/increase replacement or desired behaviors.
If a child does not make progress in response to tier III intervention, as evidenced by the progress monitoring data, the tier III team in conjunction with the child’s teacher and parent, may make a referral for special education services.